National Alliance on Mental Illness
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For Immediate Release, September 28, 2000
Arlington, VA-The National Alliance for the Mentally Ill (NAMI) today is celebrating Congress' passage of legislation establishing national standards that restrict the use of restraints and seclusion (R/S) in all psychiatric facilities which receive federal funds and in "non-medical community-based facilities for children and youth." Contained in H.R. 4365, the "Children's Health Act of 2000," the legislation is now headed to the President's desk.
"Many Americans may not immediately recognize the significance of what Congress has accomplished," NAMI executive director Laurie Flynn declared. "But for others, these particular sections of the bill will make a difference between life and death. People with mental illnesses who may become hospitalized or be treated in other facilities will now be protected under federal law by national standards that restrict the use of R/S to emergency safety situations."
"It is a victory for all Americans," Flynn said. "No one is immune from mental illness. What affects one person could affect any of us at any time. Passage of the legislation is a victory for individual dignity and human rights."
For two years, NAMI has led efforts to enact such legislation, beginning with NAMI-Connecticut leaders who persuaded The Hartford Courant to launch a national investigation of deaths and injuries due to the improper use of restraints on psychiatric patients-many of them children. Published in October 1998, the investigation documented 142 deaths over a 10-year period and produced an estimate from the Harvard Center for Risk Analysis of between 50 and 150 deaths annually, most of which went unreported.
Following the Hartford Courant investigation, NAMI continued to compile reports of abuses in a summary entitled "Cries of Anguish." When Senators Christopher Dodd (D-CT) and Joseph Lieberman (D-CT) and Representatives Diana DeGette (D-CO), Rosa DeLauro (D-CT) and Pete Stark (D-CA) introduced legislation to address the issue in March 1999, five additional deaths had occurred. Four involved youth under age 18. One was a nine-year old boy. Subsequently, Representative Chris Shays (R-CT) introduced additional legislation.
In September 1999, the U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO) issued a report identifying 24 deaths in 1999 and concluding that, because of the lack of reporting, "we believe there are many more deaths associated with restraints." When the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) began to require hospitals to report such deaths, 30 more deaths were tallied between August 1999 and August 2000. News media also have reported 15 deaths this year, including two recently in "wilderness camps."
"We are grateful to the sponsors of the Congressional legislation, as well as Senators Arlen Specter (R-PA) and Tom Harkin (D-IA), and many others. It truly has been a bipartisan effort. There is much credit to go around," Flynn noted.
A key agreement that facilitated passage of the legislation was negotiated between the "Advocates Coalition for the Appropriate Use of Restraints" chaired by NAMI, and the Child Welfare League of America in association with Catholic Charities and Alliance for Children and Families. The agreement created two separate sections: general requirements for all facilities that receive federal funds and special requirements for "non-medical community-based facilities for children and youth." Members of the Advocates Coalition include:
The ARC, USA
Key provisions under general requirements include: